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Leveraging Chapter 11 for Real Estate Asset Debt Restructuring

The real estate industry is no stranger to economic downturns and financial challenges. Owners of office buildings, hotels, apartment complexes, and other real estate assets can find themselves grappling with significant debt burdens, especially during economic crises like the one triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic and challenging interest rate environments. Chapter 11 is a powerful tool at their disposal for tackling these financial challenges. In this article, we explore how owners of real estate assets can use Chapter 11 to restructure debt to protect equity, preserve value, and secure a more stable financial future. (Note: Special purpose entities that own real estate may be covered under special rules for single asset real estate-"SARE"-debtors. This article discusses Chapter 11 in the context of real estate enterprises generally and a future article will discuss the differences for SARE cases).

Chapter 11: An Overview

Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code provides a mechanism for businesses, including real estate entities, to reorganize their financial affairs while continuing their operations. Unlike Chapter 7, which involves liquidation, Chapter 11 allows debtors to retain control of their assets and develop a plan to repay creditors over time. This can be particularly advantageous for owners of real estate assets who wish to maintain their investments.

Why Real Estate Owners Consider Chapter 11

Owners of office buildings, hotels, and apartment complexes can face a myriad of financial challenges that make Chapter 11 an attractive option:

1. Economic Downturns: Economic recessions and unforeseen crises can lead to reduced occupancy rates, declining property values, and difficulty in servicing debt obligations.

2. Unmanageable Debt Loads: Excessive debt can cripple real estate investors, making it difficult to cover operational costs, mortgage payments, and maintenance expenses.

3. Loan Maturity and Refinancing Issues: Owners may struggle to refinance loans or secure favorable terms, especially if property values have decreased, interest rates have increased, or lending appetite has declined.

4. Lease Negotiations: Rent concessions or lease negotiations may be required to maintain occupancy rates, further impacting cash flow.

How Chapter 11 Benefits Real Estate Owners

Chapter 11 provides immediately relief, as well as time to formulate and implement a restructuring plan.

1. Automatic Stay: Chapter 11 stops lawsuits, foreclosure proceedings, and receivership actions, and provides owners time to make critical decisions about how to maximize the value of their project.

2. Debt Restructuring: Under Chapter 11, real estate owners can propose a plan to restructure their debt. This may include reducing the principal amount, extending loan terms, and reducing interest rates, all toward making the debt more manageable.

3. Asset Preservation: Owners can retain control of their real estate assets and continue operations while negotiating with creditors and formulating a debt repayment plan.

4. Lease Renegotiations: Owners can use the Chapter 11 process to renegotiate leases with tenants, potentially securing more favorable terms and stabilizing cash flow.

5. Time to Recover: In some situations, Chapter 11 allows owners time to wait for market conditions to improve, potentially increasing property values and providing a more favorable exit strategy.

The Chapter 11 Process for Real Estate Owners

The Chapter 11 process is complex, and requires the help of experienced attorneys who focus on this specialized area of the law. While every situation is unique, the following is a general summary of how Chapter 11 works.

1. Filing for Chapter 11: Real estate owners must file a Chapter 11 petition with the bankruptcy court. This initiates the automatic stay, halting collection actions and foreclosure proceedings.

2. Developing a Plan: Owners have the exclusive right to propose a debt repayment plan within the first 120 days after filing (90 days for single asset real estate debtors). This plan outlines how creditors will be repaid and may include debt reduction and lease modifications.

3. Creditor Negotiations: Owners must negotiate with creditors to gain approval for the plan. This process often involves compromise and may require court approval if creditors do not agree. Subchapter V, a streamlined version of Chapter 11 that is available to enterprises with less than $7.5 million of debt, largely dispenses with the negotiation requirement, and requires only that secured debt is repaid on fair market terms and disposable income is committed to repaying unsecured creditors over 3-5 years.

4. Confirmation and Implementation: Once the plan is approved, it is confirmed by the court, and the owner can begin implementing it. This may involve restructuring debt, selling assets, or renegotiating leases.

5. Emerging from Chapter 11: Upon implementation of the plan, the real estate owner emerges from Chapter 11 with a more sustainable financial structure.


Chapter 11 provides real estate owners facing financial challenges with a powerful tool for debt restructuring and asset preservation. By leveraging Chapter 11, owners of office buildings, hotels, apartment complexes, and other real estate assets can navigate difficult economic times, renegotiate terms with creditors, and position themselves for long-term success. However, it is essential to consult with experienced legal and financial professionals to navigate the complexities of Chapter 11 and ensure the best possible outcome for all stakeholders involved.

EmergeLaw, PLC - Nashville Chapter 11 Attorneys

About EmergeLaw, PLC

EmergeLaw is a boutique law firm that represents small and middle market businesses and their owners in debt workouts, Chapter 11 reorganizations, Subchapter V restructurings, and other proceedings to help them deleverage and reposition for future success. Applying decades of experience and a specialized toolkit, our Nashville business restructuring attorneys help entrepreneurs, family businesses, private equity funded companies, and real estate investors maximize value in ways that many clients find unexpectedly efficient and effective.


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